http://aka.ms/pciblueprint is a fascinating collection of security documents for PCI compliance. They’re designed to cut the cost of building a secure infrastructure by providing a design pattern and details.
One of the recurring lessons from Petroski is how great engineers overcome not only the challenges of physical engineering: calculating loads, determining build orders, but they also overcome the real world challenges to their ideas, including financial and political ones. For example:
Many a wonderful concept, beautifully drawn by an inspired structural artist, has never risen off the paper because its cost could not be justified. Most of the great bridges of the nineteenth century, which served to define bridge building and other technological achievements for the twentieth century, were financed by private enterprise, often led by the expanding railroads. Engineers acting as entrepreneurs frequently put together the prospectuses, and in some cases almost single-handedly promoted their dreams to the realists. […] Debates over how to pay for them were common. (Engineers of Dreams: Great Bridge Builders and the Spanning of America, Henry Petroski)
Many security professionals have a hobby of griping that products get rushed to market, maybe to be secured later. We have learned to be more effective at building security in, and in doing so, reduce product costs and increase on-time delivery. But some products were built before we knew how to do that, and others are going to get built by companies who choose not to do that. And in that sense, Collin Greene’s retrospective, “Fixing Security Bugs” is very much worth your time. It’s a retrospective on the Vista security program from a pen-test perspective.
Finding bugs: Exciting.
Fixing those bugs: Not exciting.
The thing is, the finish line for our job in security is getting bugs fixed¹, not just found and filed. Doing this effectively is not a technology problem. It is a communications, organizational² and psychology problem.
I joined Microsoft while the Vista pen test was finishing up, and so my perspective is complimentary. I’d like to add a few additional perspectives to his points.
First, he asks “is prioritization correct?” After Vista, the SDL team created security bug bars, and then later refined them to align with the MSRC update priorities. That alignment with the MSRC priorities was golden. It made it super-clear that if you didn’t fix this before ship, you were going to have to do an update later. As a security engineer, you need to align your prioritization to the all up delivery priorities. Having everything be “extremely critical,” “very critical,” or “moderately critical” means you don’t know what matters, and so nothing does.
Second, “why security matters” was still a fight to be fought in Vista. By Windows 7, security had completed its “move left.” The spec form contained sections for security and privacy. Threat model review was a gate for start of coding. These process changes happened while developers were “rebelling” against Vista’s “overweight” engineering process. They telegraphed that security mattered to management and executives. As a security engineer, you need to get management to spend time talking about how security is balanced with other priorities.
Third, he points out that escalating to a manager can feel bad, but he’s right: “Often the manager has the most context on priorities.” Management saying “get this fixed” is an expression of prioritization. If you’ve succeeded in your work on “why security matters,” then management will know that they need to reinforce that message. Bringing the issues to them, responsibly, helps them get their job done. If it feels bad to escalate, then it’s worth asking if you have full buy in on security.
Now, I’m talking about security as if it matters to management. More and more, that’s the case. Something in the news causes leadership to say “we have to do better,” and they believe that there are things that they can do. In part that belief is because very large companies have been talking about how to make it work. But when that belief isn’t there, it’s your job as an engineer to, as Petroski says, single-handedly promote your dreams to the realists. Again, Greene’s post is full of good ideas.
Lastly, not everything is a bug. I discussed vulnerabilities versus design recently in “Emergent Design Issues.”
In the Brakesec podcast, I used a new analogy for why we need to name our work. When we talk about cooking, we have very specific recipes that we talk about: Julia Child’s beef bourguignon. Paul Prudhomme’s blackened fish. We hope that new cooks will follow the recipes until they get a feel for them, and that they can then start adapting and modifying them, as they generate mental models of what they’re doing.
But we talk about threat modeling we don’t label our recipes. We say this is how to threat model, as if that’s not as broad as “this is how to cook.”
And in that podcast, I realized that I’ve been guilty of definition drift in how I talk about data flow diagrams. Data flow diagrams, DFDs are also called ‘threat model diagrams’ because they’re so closely associated with threat modeling. And as I’ve used them over the course of a decade, there have been many questions:
- Do you start with a context diagram?
- What’s a multi-process, and when should I use one?
- Do I really need to draw single-headed arrows? They make my diagram hard to read!
- Is this process inside this arc? Is an arc the best way to show a trust boundary?
- Should I color things?
Those questions I’ve initiated changes, such as showing a process as a rounded rectangle (versus a circle), eliminating rules such as all arrows are uni-directional, and advocating for trust boundaries as labeled boxes.
What I have not done is been crisp about what these changes are in a way that lets a team say “we use v3 DFDs” the way they might say “we use Python 3.” (ok, no one says either, I know!)
I’m going to retroactively label all of these changes as DFD3.0. DFD v1 was a 1970s construct. DFD2 was the critical addition of trust boundaries. And a version 3 DFD is defined as follows:
- It uses 5 symbols. A rectangle represents an external entity, a person or code outside your control. A rounded rectangle represents a process. They’re connected by arrows, which can be single or double headed. Data stores are represented by parallel lines. A trust boundary is a closed shape, usually a box. All lines are solid, except those used for trust boundaries, which are dashed or dotted. (There is no “multi-process” symbol in DFD3.)
- It must not* depend on the use of color, but can use color for additional information.
- All elements should have a label.
- You may have a context diagram if the system is complex. One is not required.
* Must, must not, should, should not are used per IETF norms.
This also allows us to talk about what might be in a DFD3.1. I know that I usually draw disks with the “drum” symbol, and I see a lot of people using that. It seems like a reasonable addition.
Using specific naming also allows us to fork. If you want to define a different type of DFD, have at it. If we have a bunch, we can figure out how keep things clear. Oh, and speaking of forking, I put this on github: DFD3.
Using specific naming allows us to talk about testing and maturity in the sense of “this is in alpha test.” “This has been used for several years, we took feedback, adjusted, and now it’s release quality.” I think that DFD3 is release quality, but it probably needs some beta testing for the definitions.
Similarly, DREAD has a bunch of problems, including a lack of definition. I use mention of DREAD as a way to see if people are threat modeling well. And one challenge there is that people silently redefine DREAD to mean something other than what it meant when Michael Howard and David LeBlanc talked about it in Writing Secure Code (2nd ed, 2003). If you want to build something new, your customers and users need to understand that it’s new, so they don’t get confused by it. Therefore, you need to give your new thing a new name. You could call it DREAD2, a DRE4D, DRECK, I don’t really care. What I care about is that it’s easily distinguished, and the first step towards that is a new name.
[Update: What’s most important is not the choices that I’ve made for what’s in DFD3, but the grouping of those choices into DFD3, so that you can make your own choices and our tools can compete in the market.
So apparently my “friends” at outlook.com are marking my email as junk today, with no explanation. They’re doing this to people who have sent me dozens of emails over the course of months or years.
Why does no spam filter seem to take repeated conversational turns into account? Is there a stronger signal that I want to engage with someone than…repeatedly engaging?
It seems like these days, we want to talk about everything in security as if it’s a vulnerability. For example:
German researchers have discovered security flaws that could let hackers, spies and criminals listen to private phone calls and intercept text messages on a potentially massive scale – even when cellular networks are using the most advanced encryption now available.Experts say it’s increasingly clear that SS7, first designed in the 1980s, is riddled with serious vulnerabilities that undermine the privacy of the world’s billions of cellular customers. The flaws discovered by the German researchers are actually functions built into SS7 for other purposes – such as keeping calls connected as users speed down highways, switching from cell tower to cell tower – that hackers can repurpose for surveillance because of the lax security on the network. (“German researchers discover a flaw that could let anyone listen to your cell calls.” Washington Post, 2014).
But these are not vulnerabilities, because we can have endless debate about it they should be fixed. (Chrome exposing passwords is another example.) If they’re not vulnerabilities, what are they? Perhaps they’re flaws? One definition of flaws reads:
“Flaws are often much more subtle than simply an off-by-one error in an array reference or use of an incorrect system call,” the report notes. “A flaw might be instantiated in software code, but it is the result of a mistake or oversight at the design level.”
An example of such a flaw noted in the report is the failure to separate data and control instructions and the co-mingling of them in a string – a situation that can lead to injection vulnerabilities. (IEEE Report Reveals Top 10 Software Security Design Flaws)
In this sense, the SS7 issues are probably not flaws in the sense that the system behavior is unanticipated. But we don’t know. We don’t know what properties we should expect SS7 to have. For most software, the design requirements, the threat model, is not clear or explicit. Even when it’s explicit, it’s often not public. (Larry Loeb makes the same point here.)
For example, someone decided to write code to run a program on mouse over in Powerpoint, that code was tested, dialog text was written and internationalized, and so on. Someone documented it, and it’s worth pointing out that the documentation doesn’t apply to Powerpoint 2016. Was there a debate over the security of that feature when it shipped? I don’t know. When it was removed? Probably.
There’s a set of these, and I’m going to focus on how they manifest in Windows for reasons that I’ll get to. Examples include:
- DLL hijacking: Eric Lawrence asked, “How long until Microsoft stops pretending DLL Hijacking isn’t a problem and introduces a new EXECUTABLE CHARACTERISTICS flag SYS_DLLS_ONLY?”
- Insecure ActiveX Controls: Michael Howard says he Never Thought I’d Still be Dealing with This: Insecure ActiveX Controls!
- Whitelist bypass:
Bypass Application Whitelisting Script Protections – Regsvr32.exe & COM Scriptlets (.sct files)
- BreenMachine’s set of Hot Potato – Windows Privilege Escalation
- DDE messages, as exploited in “Macro-less Code Exec in MSWord.”
- “The Absurdly Underestimated Dangers of CSV Injection,” by George Mauer
- Confused deputy attacks such as Zack Whittacker’s “Microsoft won’t fix Windows flaw that lets hackers steal your username and password (NTLM creds to internet share); but they took the effort to put the creds into a separate virtual machine. There’s also a confused deputy as a building block in Mauer’s CSV injection.
- File extension hiding and doubled extensions. (It’s not even worth a link.
The reason I’m looking at these is because design questions like these emerge when a system is successful. Whatever else you want to say about it, Windows was successful and very widely deployed. As a system becomes more successful, the easily exploitable bugs are fixed, and the hard to fix design tradeoffs become relatively more important. As I wrote in “The Evolution of Secure Things:”
It’s about the constant imperfection of products, and how engineering is a response to perceived imperfections. It’s about the chaotic real world from which progress emerges. In a sense, products are never perfected, but express tradeoffs between many pressures, like manufacturing techniques, available materials, and fashion in both superficial and deep ways.
That chaotic real world exposes a set of issues that may or may not have been visible during product design. In threat modeling, identification of issues is the most crucial step. If you fail to identify issues, you will not manage those issues well. Another way to say that is: identifying issues is a necessary but not sufficient step.
The design choices listed above almost all predate threat modeling as a structured practice at Microsoft. But there have been other choices, like Windows Wifi sense or new telemetry in Windows 10. We can disagree with those design choices, but it’s clear that there were internal discussion of the right business tradeoffs. So we go back to the definition of a flaw, “a mistake or oversight at the design level.” These were not oversights. Were they design mistakes? That’s harder. The designers knew exactly what they were designing, and the software worked as planned. It was not received as planned, and it is certainly being used in unexpected ways.
There are interesting issues of composition, especially in backup authentication. That problem is being exploited in crypto currency thefts:
Mr. Perklin and other people who have investigated recent hacks said the assailants generally succeeded by delivering sob stories about an emergency that required the phone number to be moved to a new device — and by trying multiple times until a gullible agent was found.
“These guys will sit and call 600 times before they get through and get an agent on the line that’s an idiot,” Mr. Weeks said.
Coinbase, one of the most widely used Bitcoin wallets, has encouraged customers to disconnect their mobile phones from their Coinbase accounts.
One can imagine a lot of defenses, but “encouraging” customers to not use a feature may not be enough. As online wallet companies grow, they need to have threat modeled better, and perhaps that entails turning off the feature. (I don’t know their businesses well enough to simply assert an answer.)
In summary, we’re doing a great job at finding and squishing bugs, and that’s opening up new and exciting opportunities to think more deeply about design issues.
PowerPoint Screen capture via Casey Smith.
Twenty years ago, Windows 95 was the most common operating system. Yahoo and Altavista were our gateways to the internet. Steve Jobs just returned to Apple. Google didn’t exist yet. America Online had just launched their Instant Messenger. IPv6 was coming soon. That’s part of the state of software in 1997, twenty years ago. We need to figure out what engineering software looks like for a twenty year lifespan, and part of that will be really doing such engineering, because theory will only take us to the limits of our imaginations.
Today, companies are selling devices that will last twenty years in the home, such as refrigerators and speakers, and making them with network connectivity. That network connectivity is both full internet connectivity, that is, Internet Protocol stacks, and also local network connectivity, such as Bluetooth and Zigbee.
We have very little idea how to make software that can survive as long as AOL IM did. (It’s going away in December, if you missed the story.)
“The customer can choose to acknowledge the policy, or can accept that over time their product may cease to function,” the Sonos spokesperson said, specifically.
Or, as the Consumerist, part of Consumer Reports, puts it in “Sonos Holds Software Updates Hostage If You Don’t Sign New Privacy Agreement:”
There are some real challenges here, both technical and economic. Twenty years ago, we didn’t understand double-free or format string vulnerabilities. Twenty years of software updates aren’t going to be cheap. (I wrote about the economics in “Maintaining & Updating Software.”)
The image at the top is the sole notification that I’ve gotten that Office 2011 is no longer getting security updates. (Sadly, it’s only shown once per computer, or perhaps once per user of the computer.) Microsoft, like all tech companies, will cut functionality that it can’t support, like <"a href="https://www.macworld.com/article/1154785/business/welcomebackvisualbasic.html">Visual Basic for Mac and also “end of lifes” its products. They do so on a published timeline, but it seems wrong to apply that to a refrigerator, end of lifeing your food supply.
There’s probably a clash coming between what’s allowable and what’s economically feasible. If your contract says you can update your device at any time, it still may be beyond “the corners of the contract” to shut it off entirely. Beyond economically challenging, it may not even be technically feasible to update the system. Perhaps the chip is too small, or its power budget too meager, to always connect over TLS4.2, needed addresses the SILLYLOGO attack.
What we need might include:
- A Dead Software Foundation, dedicated to maintaining the software which underlies IoT devices for twenty years. This is not only the Linux kernel, but things like tinybox and openssl. Such a foundation could be funded by organizations shipping IoT devices, or even by governments, concerned about the externalities, what Sean Smith called “the Cyber Love Canal” in The Internet of Risky Things. The Love Canal analogy is apt; in theory, the government cleans up after the firms that polluted are gone. (The practice is far more complex.)
- Model architectures that show how to engineer devices, such as an internet speaker, so that it can effectively be taken offline when the time comes. (There’s work in the mobile app space on making apps work offline, which is related, but carries the expectation that the app will eventually reconnect.)
- Conceptualization of the legal limits of what you can sign away in the fine print. (This may be everything; between severability and arbitration clauses, the courts have let contract law tilt very far towards the contract authors, but Congress did step in to write the Consumer Review Fairness Act.) The FTC has commented on issues of device longevity, but not (afaik) on limits of contracts.
What else do we need to build software that survives for twenty years?
“Threat Modeling and Architecture” is the latest in a series at Infosec Insider.
After I wrote my last article on Rolling out a Threat Modeling Program, Shawn Chowdhury asked (on Linkedin) for more informatioin on involving threat modeling in the architecture process. It’s a great question, except it involves the words “threat, “modeling,” and “architecture.” And each of those words, by itself, is enough to get some people twisted around an axle.
Recently, I was talking to a friend who wasn’t aware that I’m consulting, and so I wanted to share a bit about my new life, consulting!
I’m consulting for companies of all sizes and in many sectors. The services I’m providing include threat modeling training, engineering and strategy work, often around risk analysis or product management.
Some of the projects I’ve completed recently include:
- Threat modeling training – Engineers learn how to threat model, and how to make threat modeling part of their delivery. Classes range from 1 to 5 days, and are customized to your needs.
- Process re-engineering for a bank – Rebuilt their approach to a class of risks, increasing security, consistently and productively across the org.
- Feature analysis for a security company – Identifying market need, what features fit those needs, and created a compelling and grounded story to bring the team together.
If you have needs like these, or other issues where you think my skills and experience could help, I’d love to hear from you. And if you know someone who might, I’m happy to talk to them.
(The abstract:) Potentially dangerous cryptography errors are well documented in many applications. Conventional wisdom suggests that many of these errors are caused by cryptographic Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) that are too complicated, have insecure defaults, or are poorly documented. To address this problem, researchers have created several cryptographic libraries that they claim are more usable; however, none of these libraries have been empirically evaluated for their ability to promote more secure development. This paper is the first to examine both how and why the design and resulting usability of different cryptographic libraries affects the security of code written with them, with the goal of understanding how to build effective future libraries. We conducted a controlled experiment in which 256 Python developers recruited from GitHub attempt common tasks involving symmetric and asymmetric cryptography using one of five different APIs.
We examine their resulting code for functional correctness and security, and compare their results to their self-reported sentiment about their assigned library. Our results suggest that while APIs designed for simplicity can provide security
benefits—reducing the decision space, as expected, prevents choice of insecure parameters—simplicity is not enough. Poor
documentation, missing code examples, and a lack of auxiliary features such as secure key storage, caused even participants
assigned to simplified libraries to struggle with both basic functional correctness and security. Surprisingly, the
availability of comprehensive documentation and easy-to use code examples seems to compensate for more complicated APIs in terms of functionally correct results and participant reactions; however, this did not extend to security results. We find it particularly concerning that for about 20% of functionally correct tasks, across libraries, participants believed their code was secure when it was not. Our results suggest that while new cryptographic libraries that want to promote effective security should offer a simple, convenient interface, this is not enough: they should also, and perhaps more importantly, ensure support for a broad range of common tasks and provide accessible documentation with secure, easy-to-use code examples.
It’s interesting that even when developers took care to consider usability of their APIs, usability testing revealed serious issues. But it’s not surprising. The one constant of usability testing is that people surprise you.
The paper is: “Comparing the Usability of Cryptographic APIs,” Yasemin Acar (CISPA, Saarland University), Michael Backes (CISPA, Saarland University & MPI-SWS), Sascha Fahl (CISPA, Saarland University), Simson Garfinkel (National Institute of Standards and Technology), Doowon Kim (University of Maryland), Michelle Mazurek (University of Maryland), Christian Stransky (CISPA, Saarland University), The Increasingly-misnamed Oakland Conference, 2017.
There was a bit of a complex debate last week over 1Password. I think the best article may be Glenn Fleishman’s “AgileBits Isn’t Forcing 1Password Data to Live in the Cloud,” but also worth reading are Ken White’s “Who moved my cheese, 1Password?,” and “Why We Love 1Password Memberships,” by 1Password maker AgileBits. I’ve recommended 1Password in the past, and I’m not sure if I agree with Agilebits that “1Password memberships are… the best way to use 1Password.” This post isn’t intended to attack anyone, but to try to sort out what’s at play.
This is a complex situation, and you’ll be shocked, shocked to discover that I think a bit of threat modeling can help. Here’s my model of
what we’re working on:
What can go wrong?
If password storage is local, there is not a fat target at Agilebits. Even assuming they’re stored well (say, 10K iterations of PBKDF2), they’re more vulnerable if they’re stolen, and they’re easier to steal en masse [than] if they’re on your computer. (Someone might argue that you, as a home user, are less likely to detect an intruder than Agilebits. That might be true, but that’s a way to detect; the first question is how likely is an attacker to break in? They’ll succeed against you and they’ll succeed against Agilebits, and they’ll get a boatload more from breaking into Agilebits. This is not intended as a slam of Agilebits, it’s an outgrowth of ‘assume breach.’) I believe Agilebits has a simpler operation than Dropbox, and fewer skilled staff in security operations than Dropbox. The simpler operation probably means there are fewer usecases, plugins, partners, etc, and means Agilebits is more likely to notice some attacks. To me, this nets out as neutral. Fleishman promises to explain “how AgileBits’s approach to zero-knowledge encryption… may be less risky and less exposed in some ways than using Dropbox to sync vaults.” I literally don’t see his argument, perhaps it was lost in the complexity of writing a long article? [Update: see also Jeffrey Goldberg’s comment about how they encrypt the passwords. I think of what they’ve done as a very strong mitigation; with a probably reasonable assumption they haven’t bolluxed their key generation. See this 1Password Security Design white paper.]
To net it out: local storage is more secure. If your computer is compromised, your passwords are compromised with any architecture. If your computer is not compromised, and your passwords are nowhere else, then you’re safe. Not so if your passwords are somewhere else and that somewhere else is compromised.
The next issue is where’s the code? If the password manager executable is stored on your device, then to replace it, the attacker either needs to compromise your device, or to install new code on it. An attacker who can install new code on your computer wins, which is why secure updates matter so much. An attacker who can’t get new code onto your computer must compromise the password store, discussed above. When the code is not on your computer but on a website, then the ease of replacing it goes way up. There’s two modes of attack. Either you can break into one of the web server(s) and replace the .js files with new ones, or you can MITM a connection to the site and tamper with the data in transit. As an added bonus, either of those attacks scales. (I’ll assume that 1Password uses certificate pinning, but did not chase down where their JS is served.)
Netted out, getting code from a website each time you run is a substantial drop in security.
What should we do about it?
So this is where it gets tricky. There are usability advantages to having passwords everywhere. (Typing a 20 character random password from your phone into something else is painful.) In their blog post, Agilebits lists more usability and reliability wins, and those are not to be scoffed at. There are also important business advantages to subscription revenue, and not losing your passwords to a password manager going out of business is important.
Each 1Password user needs to make a decision about what the right tradeoff is for them. This is made complicated by family and team features. Can little Bobby move your retirement account tables to the cloud for you? Can a manager control where you store a team vault?
This decision is complicated by walls of text descriptions. I wish is that Agilebits would do a better job of crisply and cleanly laying out the choice that their customers can make, and the advantages and disadvantages of each. (I suggest a feature chart like this one as a good form, and the data should also be in each app as you set things up.) That’s not to say that Agilebits can’t continue to choose and recommend a default.
Does this help?
After years of working in these forms, I think it’s helpful as a way to break out these issues. I’m curious: does it help you? If not, where could it be better?